Virupaksha, Virupākṣa, Virūpākṣa, Virupa-aksha: 27 definitions
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Virupaksha means something in Buddhism , Pali, Hinduism , Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Shilpashastra glossary
Source : Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy 1) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष):—Fourth of the eleven emanations of Rudra ( ekādaśa-rudra ), according to the Viśvakarma-śilpa . He keeps in his right hands the khaḍga , śūla , damaru , aṅkuśa , sarpa , chakra , gadā and akṣamālā ; and in the left hands, the kheṭaka , khaṭvāṅga , śakti , paraśu , tarjanī , ghaṭa , ghaṇṭa , and kapāla .
2) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष):—Tenth of the twelve emanations of Rudra, according to the Rūpamaṇḍana .
Source : Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Ruru, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala , there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (eg., Ruru) has a further eight sub-manifestations (eg., Virūpākṣa), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.
When depicting Virūpākṣa according to traditional iconographic rules ( śilpaśāstra ), one should depcit him (and other forms of Ruru) having a pure white color, adorned with ornaments set with rubies; he should carry an akṣamālā , the aṅkuśa , a pustaka and a vīṇā . The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.
context information Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Purana glossary
Source : archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia 1) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—One of the elephants which hold up the earth from Pātāla (underworld). It is said that earthquake occurs when this elephant shakes its head. (For details see under Aṣṭadiggajas).
2) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—A Rākṣasa (giant) who fought on the side of Rāvaṇa against Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. It is mentioned in Uttara Rāmāyaṇa that this giant was born to Mālyavān by a Gandharva damsel called Sundarī. Seven sons named Vajramuṣṭi, Virūpākṣa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajñakośa, Matta and Unmatta and a daughter named Nalā were born to Mālyavān by Sundarī.
2) All these sons held prominent places in the army of Rāvaṇa. It is mentioned in Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 10, that in the battle between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, when Kumbhakarṇa was killed, the army was commanded by Kumbha, Nikumbha, Makarākṣa, Mahodara, Mahāpārśva, Matta, Unmatta, Praghasa, Bhāsakarṇa, Virūpākṣa, Devāntaka, Narāntaka, Triśiras and Atikāya.
2) When Sugrīva devastated the army of Rāvaṇa and caused havoc among the giants, Virūpākṣa, who was an archer got on an elephant and entered the battlefield. He confronted Sugrīva first. He thwarted the stone flung at him by Sugrīva, and struck him. For a time Sugrīva found it difficult to withstand him. But in the battle which followed, Sugrīva struck Virūpākṣa down and killed him. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Sarga 97).
3) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—One of the thirtythree notorious Dānavas (demons) born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Danu. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 22, that it was this asura called Virūpākṣa, who had, later, taken rebirth as King Citravarmā.
4) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—An asura who was the follower of Narakāsura. This Virūpākṣa was killed on the bank of the river Lohitagaṅgā. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātyapāṭha, Chapter 38).
5) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—A Rākṣasa who was the friend of Ghaṭotkaca. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 175, Stanza 15).
6) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—This giant named Virūpākṣa was the friend of a stork called Rājadharmā. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 170, Stanza 15). (See under Gautama V).
7) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—One of the eleven Rudras.
Source : archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation 1) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) refers to “odd-eyed” and represents a name of Śiva. He is called Virūpākṣa ‘odd-eyed’, because he is represented as having three eyes: two on either side of the nose and one on the forehead.
2) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a Gaṇa-chief who participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33 . Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“O Nārada, listen to the numerical strength of the most important and courageous of those groups. [...] Virūpākṣa, the lord of Gaṇas, with sixty-four crores. So also the chiefs of Gaṇas Tālaketu, Ṣaḍāsya and Pañcāsya. [...] Thus at the bidding of Śiva, the heroic Vīrabhadra went ahead followed by crores and crores, thousands and thousands, hundreds and hundreds of Gaṇas [viz., Virūpākṣa]”.
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index 1a) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—A son of Danu, and a follower of Vṛtra in his battle with Indra. *
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 10. ; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 11.
1b) Another name for Śiva having the sun, moon and fire for eyes. *
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 64.
1c) A Śiva gaṇa. *
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27.
1d) One of the 11 Rudras; as a lokapāla. *
- * Matsya-purāṇa 5. 29; 153. 19; 194. 19; 266. 27.
1e) A Bhārgava gotrakartā. *
- * Matsya-purāṇa 195. 19.
1f) The lord of the south-west direction. *
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 87.
Source : JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata ( cf . I.59.25, I.65, I.61.22) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Virūpākṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
context information The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
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Source : Wisdom Library: Śaivism Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the Sanskrit name of a deity presiding over Hemakūṭa, one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga , which is one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas . The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas and presiding deities (eg., Virūpākṣa) is found in the commentary on the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.
context information Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
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Dharmashastra (religious law)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Dharmashastra glossary
Source : archive.org: The religion and philosophy of the Veda and the Upanishads (dharmashastra) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a deity to be invoked in a certain ritual, according to the Mānavagṛhyasūtra 2.14. Accordingly, the deity is prescribed when one suffers from possession by the Vināyakas, Śālakaṭaṅkaṭa, Kūṣmāṇḍarājaputra, Usmita and Devayajana. The Baijavāpagṛhyasūtra replaces the names of last two vināyakas with Mita and Sammita. According to R. C. Hazra in his Gaṇapati-worship, “this rite is both expiatory and propitiatory in nature and in which various things including meat and fish (both raw and cooked) and wine and cakes are to be offered”..
The gṛhya-sūtras are a branch of dharma-sūtras and refer to a category of Vedic literature dealing with domstic rites and rituals. The Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra belongs to the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda. The Baijavāpa-gṛhya-sūtra is known only through references to it in other works (eg., Vīramitrodaya-Saṃskāra).
context information Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Chandas glossary
Source : Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature Virupākṣa (विरुपाक्ष) or Virūpākṣa Yajvan (17th century C.E.), son of Rāmacandrādhvarin of Maudgalyagotra and resident of the village Caṅgamā of Andhrapradesh. He discusses about the metres of Andhra languages in his Narasiṃhavṛttamālā. He quotes Śrīnātha, a. of commentary on Vṛttaratnākara and Dāmodara, author of Vāṇībhūṣaṇa in his Nṛsiṃhavṛttamālā. Virupākṣa mentions about his father, gotra, village and name of the text in the beginning.
context information Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
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[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Kavya glossary
Source : Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a Yakṣa who, due to Kubera’s curse, was born on the earth as the son of a certain Brāhman, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 34 . Accordingly, “the God of Wealth had for servant a Yakṣa named Virūpākṣa, who had been appointed chief guardian of lacs of treasure. And he delegated a certain Yakṣa to guard a treasure lying outside the town of Mathurā, posted there like an immovable pillar of marble”.
The story of Virūpākṣa is narrated to king Udayana by his minister Yaugandharāyaṇa in order to demonstrate that “heavenly beings, on account of certain causes, descend from heaven to the earth, by the appointment of fate, and, because they are free from sin, they are not born in the usual way”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Virūpākṣa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings) . The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
context information Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya , or ‘epic poetry’ and natya , or ‘dramatic poetry’.
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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Pancaratra glossary
Source : eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is a name of Śiva, as mentioned in the 9th century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra (Ādikāṇḍa chapter 1).—“[...] Formerly, it is told, Virūpākṣa-Maheśvara (i.e., Śiva) with Gaurī (i.e., Pārvatī) questioned the four-faced one (Brahmā) who was staying in the above of Vairāja”.
context information Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Tibetan Buddhism glossary
Source : Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a deity summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Virūpākṣa).
Source : academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the husband of Khagānanā: the name of a Ḍākinī (‘sacred girl’) presiding over Himālaya: one of the four Upacchandoha (‘sacred spot’) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’) , according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra . The Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts resided over by twenty-four Ḍākinīs whose husbands (viz., Virūpākṣa) abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients ( dhātu ) of one’s body.
Khagānanā has for her husband the hero ( vīra ) named Virūpākṣa. She is the presiding deity of Himālaya and the associated internal location is the ‘penis’ and the bodily ingredients ( dhātu ) are the ‘middle of the hair parting’.
Source : academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Khagānanā forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra , according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vajracakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’) , situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala . The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Virūpākṣa] each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum and a knife; they are dark-bluish-black in color.
context information Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques ( vajrayāna ) are collected indepently.
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General definition (in Buddhism)
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Buddhism glossary
Source : Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) refers to the first of the “four world protectors” ( caturlokapāla ) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 7). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., caturlokapāla and Virūpākṣa ). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Source : Internet Archive: The gods of northern Buddhism The king of the Nagas is Virupaksha, one of the four Lokapala, or Celestial Guardians of the Four Cardinal Points. His kingdom is the continent west of Mount Meru but the chief residence of the Nagas is Bhogavati, 3,000 yoganas under the sea.
India history and geogprahy
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in India history glossary
Source : Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) is the name of a shrine built by Trailokyamahādevī and Lokamahādevī, both queens of Vikramāditya and belonging to the Haihaya family. The shrine was previously known as Lokeśvara. Vikramāditya II was the son of Vijayaditya, son of Vinayaditya, son of Vikramāditya I.
Virūpākṣa is one of the eight temples located in a space to the north of the village Paṭṭadakal , arrayed in a rectangle of about 180 x 140 m on the western bank of the river.
Source : Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Painting: A Survey (h) Virupaksha temple (at Hampi) is an archaeologically important site containing ancient Indian mural paintings, from the Vijayanagara period.
context information The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
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Languages of India and abroad
[ «previous (V) next» ] — Virupaksha in Sanskrit glossary
Source : DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).— a. having deformed eyes; वपुर्विरूपाक्षम् ( vapurvirūpākṣam ) Ku.5.72.
- kṣaḥ Name of Śiva (having an unusual number of eyes); दृशा दग्धं मनसिजं जीवयन्ति दृशैव याः । विरूपाक्षस्य जयिनीस्ताः स्तुवे वामलोचनाः ( dṛśā dagdhaṃ manasijaṃ jīvayanti dṛśaiva yāḥ | virūpākṣasya jayinīstāḥ stuve vāmalocanāḥ ) || Vb.1.2; Ku.6.21.
Virūpākṣa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms virūpa and akṣa (अक्ष).
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary Virupākṣa (विरुपाक्ष).— m.c. for Virūp°, q.v.
--- OR ---
Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—(= Pali Virūpakkha), (1) name of one of the ‘world-guardians’, see s.v. mahārāja(n); Viru° ( m.c. ) Samādhirājasūtra p. 42 line 4; guardian of the west, and lord of nāgas; doubtless intended by the nāga-king of this name Mahā-Māyūrī 247.18; (2) pl. , used (as also in Pali) of nāgas, pre- sumably as followers of Virūpākṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 221.15; (3) sg. , Virūpākṣaḥ (alone!) as final colophon, Sādhanamālā 601.4, perhaps meant as name of the author of the last section? (But the usual way in Sādhanamālā of indicating authors' names is something like kṛtiḥ plus gen. of the name.)
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—m.
( -kṣaḥ ) 1. Siva. 2. One of the Rudras. E. vi implying reverse, rūpa form, and akṣa the eye; having three eyes.
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—i. e. vi-rūpa -akṣa , adj. Having deformed eyes; m. Śiva, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 89, 25.
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष).—[feminine] ī having deformed eyes; [masculine] [Name] of a cert. divine being, [Epithet] of Śiva etc.
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum 1) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a teacher of yoga. Quoted in Haṭhadīpikā Oxf. 233^b: Mahāṣoḍhānyāsa from the Ūrdhvāmnāya.
2) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष):—Dakṣiṇakālikākavaca.
3) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष):—Nārāyaṇīvilāsa nāṭaka.
Source : Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary 1) Virūpākṣa (विरूपाक्ष):—[= vi-rūpākṣa ] [from vi-rūpa ] mf( ī ) n. ‘diversely-eyed’, having deformed eyes ([Comparative degree] -tara ), [Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Rāmāyaṇa; Kumāra-sambhava]
2) [ v.s. ...] having various occupations, [Vāsavadattā] ([Scholiast or Commentator])
3) [ v.s. ...] m. Name of a [particular] divine being, [Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra] (also f( ī ). Name of a tutelary deity, [Catalogue(s)])
4) [ v.s. ...] m. of Śiva (as represented with an odd number of eyes, one being in his forehead; cf. tri-locana ), [Vāsavadattā]
5) [ v.s. ...] of one of Śiva’s attendants, [Harivaṃśa]
6) [ v.s. ...] of a Rudra, [Mahābhārata]
7) [ v.s. ...] of a Yakṣa, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
8) [ v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [Mahābhārata]
9) [ v.s. ...] of a Rākṣasa, [ib.; Rāmāyaṇa]
10) [ v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Lalita-vistara]
11) [ v.s. ...] of a Loka-pāla, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [ v.s. ...] of the author of [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xii, 30], [Anukramaṇikā]
13) [ v.s. ...] of a teacher of Yoga, [Catalogue(s)]
14) [ v.s. ...] (with śarman kavi-kaṇṭhābharaṇa ācārya ) of a philos. author (who wrote in the 16th cent. A.D.), [ib.]
context information Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् ( saṃskṛtam ), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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See also (Relevant definitions)
Partial matches: Aksha , Vi , Virupa .
Starts with: Virupaksha sharman , Virupaksha-pati , Virupakshanatha , Virupakshapancakshari , Virupakshapancashat , Virupakshapancashika .
Ends with: Shri-Virupaksha .
Full-text ( [[index.php?type=search&db=quick&mode=text&input=Virupaksha%2C+Vi-r%C5%ABp%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3a%2C+Vi-rupaksa%2C+Vi-rupaksha%2C+Vir%C5%ABpa-ak%E1%B9%A3a%2C+Virupa-aksa%2C+Virupa-aksha%2C+Virup%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3a%2C+Vir%C5%ABp%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3a%2C+Virupaksa%2C+Virupakshas%2C+Vi-r%C5%ABp%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3as%2C+Vi-rupaksas%2C+Vi-rupakshas%2C+Vir%C5%ABpa-ak%E1%B9%A3as%2C+Virupa-aksas%2C+Virupa-akshas%2C+Virup%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3as%2C+Vir%C5%ABp%C4%81k%E1%B9%A3as%2C+Virupaksas|+51]] ): Virupakshapancashat , Virupakshapancakshari , Virupaksha sharman , Virupaksha-pati , Four Heavenly Kings , Atteshvara , Narayanivilasa , Meruvraja , Maheshvara , Citradharman , Bharabhuti , Vairupaksha , Krishnangana , Khaganana , Lohitaganga , Sundari , Ramacandradhvarin , Talacandrika , Amritasiddhi , Sthanakamurti .
Item last updated: 21 October, 2020