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Template:ZenBuddhism Template:Nihongo, sometimes called Template:Nihongo, is a Japanese term used in Zen Buddhism which expresses the phenomenon known as "awakening alone, without a master."[1]Template:RefnTemplate:Sfn


Mushi-dokugo (無師独悟) is a Japanese term composed of four Chinese characters, or kanji, meaning "independent realization without a master." The character mu (無) means "without" or "no", shi (師) means "master" or "teacher", doku (独) means "independent" or "alone", and go (悟) means "realization" or "understanding" (satoru), also translated as "enlightenment" (satori). When strung together, the characters literally read, "no (無) master (師) independent (独) understanding (悟)." The equivalent Chinese pronunciation is wúshī dúwù.

Examples of mushi-dokugo

Nōnin (died 1196) is an example of mushi-dokugo:[1] Template:Quote

During the Edo period in Japan, there were a great many priests who proclaimed to be "self-enlightened." These included "such notables as the Myōshin-ji masters Daigu, Ungo, Isshi and the Sōtō priest Suzuki Shōsan."[2]

The famous Korean master Jinul could also be seen as an example.

Statements on mushi-dokugo

According to William Bodiford, it is "usually considered suspect since the risk of self-delusion or "fake-Zen" is always high. [...] To guarantee that his experience of the truth of Buddhism is genuine, the Zen disciple relies upon his teacher to authenticate and formally acknowledge his enlightenment."Template:Sfn

Dōgen, the founder of the Sōtō school of Japanese Zen, acknowledged in his lifetime that such a phenomenon exists. According to Hee-Jin Kim, Template:Quote Critical, reflective thinking as an integral part of meditation is mentioned in the fascicles of the Shōbōgenzō.Template:Sfn Anyone practising alone or together, without dharma transmission, may be regarded a dharma practitioner: Template:Quote

See also



  1. 1.0 1.1 Faure, 48
  2. Haskel, 20

Web references




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