Kim Hwasang

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Kim Hwasang (Template:Korean), also known in Chinese as Wuxiang (Template:Zh, Template:Korean, 684–762), was a Korean master of Chan Buddhism who lived in Sichuan, China, whose form of Chan teaching was independent of East Mountain Teaching and Huineng.[1] His teachings were amongst the first streams of Chan Buddhism transmitted to Tibet.

Chan, the Tangut and Kim Hwasang

Solonin links the Tangut people, the Helan Mountains and Baotang Wuzhu: Template:Quote

Yün-Hua Jan (1986: pp. 27–28) states: Template:Quote

Buswell (2005: p. 191) states: Template:Quote

Transmission of Chan to the Nyingma school

Chan Buddhism was introduced to the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism in three principal streams:

  • the teachings of Kim Hwashang transmitted by Sang Shi[2] in c750 CE;
  • the lineage of Baotang Wuzhu was transmitted within Tibet by Yeshe Wangpo; and
  • the teaching of Moheyan, which were a synthesis of the East Mountain and Baotang schools.[3]

Legend states that Trisong Detsen (742–797) invited Moheyan to teach at Samye. Moheyan had been teaching at Dunhuang, which the Tibetan Empire had conquered in 786, but he lost an important philosophical debate on the nature of emptiness from the Indian master Kamalaśīla and the king declared Kamalaśīla's philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism rather than Chan.[4] This legendary "great debate" was known as "the Council of Lhasa" and is narrated and depicted in a specific cham dance held annually at Kumbum Monastery, Qinghai.[5]

Ray (2005) holds that the first documented dissemination of Chan to Tibet, chronicled in what has become known as the Statements of the Sba Family, occurred around 761 when Trisong Detsen sent a party to Yizhou to receive the teachings of Kim Hwashang, whom they encountered in Sichuan. The party received teachings and three Chinese texts from Kim, who died soon after.[6]


  1. 木棉袈裟歸處 蜀寧國寺探蹤
  2. Sang Shi later became an abbot of Samye Monastery.
  3. Barber, A. W. (1990). The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an. Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal. Vol.3, 04.1990. PP.301-317. Source: [1] (accessed: October 20, 2007).
  4. Yamaguchi, Zuihō (undated). The Core Elements of Indian Buddhism Introduced into Tibet: A Contrast with Japanese Buddhism. Source: [2] (accessed: October 20, 2007)
  5. Roccasalvo, Joseph F.(1980). 'The debate at bsam yas: religious contrast and correspondence.' Philosophy East and West 30:4 (October 1980). The University of Press of Hawaii. Pp.505-520. Source: [3] (accessed: December 17, 2007)
  6. Ray, Gary L. (2005). The Northern Ch'an School and Sudden Versus Gradual Enlightenment Debates in China and Tibet. Source: [4] Template:Webarchive (accessed: December 2, 2007)

Further reading

  • Yun-Hua, Jan (1989). A Comparative Study of 'No-thought' (Wu-nien) in Some Indian and Chinese Buddhist Texts. VVol. 16/1989: pp. 37–58. Dialogue Publishing Company. Source: [5] (accessed: January 25, 2008)

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