Four seals

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The four seals (Sanskrit: caturmudrā) are considered to be the fundamental tenents of Buddhist philosophy in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.Template:Sfn

These seals are described as "disguishing characteristics" of Buddhism. "If all these four seals are found in a path or a philosophy, it can be considered the path of the Buddha.”[1]

This formulation is also sometimes used in the East Asian Buddhist tradition; the East Asian tradition also refers to the three dharma seals.

The Four Seals in English

There are multiple translations of the expression of the four seals into English.

Geshe Thupten Jinpa translates the four seals as follows:

  1. All conditioned phenomena are impermanent and suffering
  2. All contaminated phenomena are, by nature, suffering
  3. All phenomena are empty of self-existence
  4. Nirvana is true peace.Template:Sfn

Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche translates the four seals as follows:

  • All compounded things are impermanent
  • All emotions are painful
  • All phenomena are without inherent existence
  • Nirvana is beyond description[1]

The Four Seals in Tibetan

The four seals are expressed in the Tibetan language as follows: Template:Quote

The four seals are referred to by different names in the Tibetan language. For example:

Significance of the Four Seals

The four seals are said to be the hallmark of the Buddha’s teaching, and it is often said that the mark of a real Buddhist is that he or she accepts these four. On the physical level, taking refuge is said to be the entrance to the Buddhist path, and that which serves to distinguish Buddhists from non-Buddhists. But in terms of the View, these four statements encapsulate the uniqueness of the Buddha’s teachings and set the Buddhadharma apart from all other religions and philosophies.

Origin of this expression

An early version of the four seals is to be found in the Pali Canon[5], in the form of the 'three marks or seals of existence' (Skt. trilaksaṇa), which do not include the seal: 'nirvana is peace'. This fourth seal appeared during the development of Mahayana Buddhism.[6]

Phillip Stanley has noted that the four seals do not appear in the early Tibetan sources on Buddhist terminology, the Mahavyutpatti, Madhyavyutpatti, or Kawa Paltsek's Memoranda on Dharmic Enumerations (Wyl. chos kyi rnam grangs kyi brjed byang). According to his research, the first Tibetan author to mention the four seals was Longchen Rabjam in his Treasury of Philosophical Tenets. The scholar Butön mentions 'three seals', an enumeration that is also to be found in Indian sources, such as Shakyaprabha's Prabhāvatī ('od ldan).[7]

According to Thich Nat Hanh, the four seals were introduced after Gautama Buddha died.[8]

Other formulations

The formulation of the basic tenets, or dharma seals is expressed differently in other traditions.

Three seals

In the East Asian Buddhist tradition, the three dharma seals are:

  • Impermanence
  • No-self
  • Nirvana

Three marks of existence

In the Theravada traditions, and the three marks of existence are:

  • Impermanence
  • No-self
  • Dukkha

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Rangjung citation
  3. Template:Rangjung citation
  4. Template:Rangjung citation
  5. In texts such as the Dhammapada.
  6. Philippe Cornu, oral teaching given in Paris.
  7. From: D. Phillip Stanley,The Threefold Formal, Practical, and Inclusive Canons of Tibetan Buddhism in the Context of a Pan-Asian Paradigm (Doct.Diss.), University of Virginia, 2009, pp. 149-154
  8. Template:Cite book

Sources

Further Reading

  • Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche, What Makes You Not a Buddhist (Shambhala publications, 2007)
  • Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche, Indisputable Truth (Rangjung Yeshe, 1996)
  • His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Dzogchen (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2000), pages 101-106
  • The Dalai Lama, Essence of the Heart Sutra (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2002), pages 91-97
  • Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, The World of Tibetan Buddhism (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pages 37-39
  • Mipham Rinpoche, Gateway to Knowledge Vol. 4 (Rangjung Yeshe publications, 2012)
  • Khenpo Tsultrim Lodrö, The Four Seals of Dharma, downloadable here


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