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Dṛiṣṭi (P. diṭṭhi; T. 'lta ba) - is translated as "wrong view", "afflicted views", "belief", "opinionatedness", "deluded outlooks", etc. It is defined as seeing wrongly; it's characteristic is unwise interpretation of things.Template:Manual of Abhidhamma sv

Dristi is identified in the following contexts within the Buddhist teachings:

Pali tradition

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma states:

Diṭṭhi here means seeing wrongly. Its characteristic is unwise (unjustified) interpretation of things. Its function is to preassume. It is manifested as a wrong interpretation or belief. Its proximate cause is unwillingness to see the noble ones (ariya), and so on.Template:Manual of Abhidhamma sv

Nina van Gorkom states:

What is wrong view? It is a distorted view of realities, a misinterpretation of them. Do we, for example, know hearing as only an element which hears or do we still cling to an idea of self who hears? Do we know sound as it is, as only a reality which can be heard, or do we take what is heard for a "person" or a "thing" such as a voice or a car? Person, voice and car are concepts we can think of but which cannot be heard. Hearing and thinking occur at different moments and these realities experience different objects. Only one object can be experienced at a time through the appropriate doorway, but we still have many misunderstandings about reality. Through the study of the Dhamma we may have acquired theoretical understanding of realities as being impermanent and non-self, but wrong view cannot be eradicated through theoretical understanding. It can only be eradicated through the practice, through the development of the eightfold Path.[1]

The Atthasalini (II, Part IX, Chapter I, 248) gives the following definition of wrong view, ditthi:

... It has unwise conviction as characteristic; perversion as function; wrong conviction as manifestation; the desire not to see the ariyans as proximate cause. It should be regarded as the highest fault.[1]

The Atthasalini (II, Part IX, Chapter II, 253) also states:

... From being not the right path, it is a "wrong path". For just as one who is gone astray, although he holds that this is the path to such a village, does not arrive at a village, so a man of false opinions, although he holds that this is the path to a happy destiny, cannot get there; hence from being not the right path it is a wrong path...[1]

Sanskrit tradition

The Khenjuk states:

  • Tib. ལྟ་བ་(ནི་ཤེས་རབ་)ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལྟ་བ་སྟེ། ལྟ་བ་ངན་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་རྟེན་བྱེད་པའོ།[2]
  • Beliefs are all the views of afflicted wisdom. They form the support for all unwholesome beliefs. (Rigpa Translations)[3]
  • Belief is the view of all kinds of disturbed [discrimination]. It forms the support for all unwholesome beliefs. (Erik Pema Kunsang)Template:Gateway1 sv

StudyBuddhism states:

Deluded outlooks view their objects in a certain way. They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to (yul-‘tshol-ba), without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. In other words, they merely have an attitude toward their objects. They occur only during conceptual cognition and are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation. As mental factors, however, they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything.[4]

Five types

Five types of wrong view are identified in the Sanskrit tradition. These are sometimes referred to as the five wrong views (Tib. ལྟ་བ་ལྔ་, lta ba lnga). They are:Template:Gateway1 sv[3]

  1. the view of the transitory collection (Skt. satkāyadṛṣṭi; Tib. འཇིག་ཚོགས་ལ་ལྟ་བ་, Wyl. 'jig tshogs la lta ba) which is the basis for the other four wrong views of beliefs
  2. extremist views (Skt. antagrāhadṛṣṭi; Tib. མཐར་འཛིན་པའི་ལྟ་བ་, Wyl. mthar 'dzin pa'i lta ba) such as eternalism and nihilism
  3. wrong views (Skt. mithyadṛṣṭi; Tib. ལོག་ལྟ་, Wyl. log lta), which cut the roots of virtue
  4. belief in ideological supremacy (Skt. dṛṣṭiparāmarśa; Tib. ལྟ་བ་མཆོག་འཛིན་, Wyl. lta ba mchog 'dzin)
  5. belief in ethical and ritual supremacy (Skt. śilavrataparāmarśa; Tib. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་མཆོག་འཛིན་, Wyl. tshul khrims dang brtul zhugs mchog 'dzin)

Further reading:

Alternative Translations

  • wrong view
  • beliefs
  • opinionatedness
  • defiled view (Padmakara)
  • afflicted view

See also



External links

Page is sourced from

www.encyclopediaofbuddhism.org Dṛiṣṭi