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Akuśala (P. akusala; T. mi dge ba; C. bushan; J. fuzen) is translated as "non-virtuous", "unvirtuous", "unsalutory", "unwholesome", etc.
Translator David Karma Choephel defines the term as follows:
- non-virtue, unvirtuous. That which is able to produce a future unpleasant fully-ripened result. This is sometimes translated as "unwholesome," but that is not quite accurate, because there are some unwholesome activities that are not necessarily non-virtuous, such as smoking, or drinking alcohol done with a neutral motivation. Unwholesome is a better translation for the Tibetan kha na ma tho ba.