12. Difference of the Articles Among Each Other

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The usage of pa ba ma is the most general and widest of all, as they occur with all sorts of substantives and other nouns. pa is particularly used for denoting a man who is in a certain way connected with a certain thing (something like character omitted and character omitted in Hindustāni and Persian): grwa ,school', grwa pa (literally: scholar) 'disciple, novice'; chu ,water', chu pa ,water carrier' (character omitted); rta ,horse', rta pa ,horseman'; dbus ,the province of U', dbus pa ,a man from U', khye'u ,boy', lo ,year', gnyis ,two', hence: khye'u lo gnyis pa ,a two years' boy'. If the feminine is required ma is either added to, or - more commonly - used instead of, the former: dbus ma ,a woman from U'; bu mo lo gnyis ma ,a two years' girl'. The performer of an action is more frequently denoted by po (or, in more solemn language, pa po), though, in conversation at least, mkhan, is preferred; byed pa ,to do, make; doing making'; byed po', byed pa po, ,byed mkhan ,the doer, the maker'.


The appendices ka kha ga occur with a limited number of nouns only, especially the name of the seasons, with numerals, and some pronouns. (ko seems to be a vulgar form of pronounciation for ka).

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